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22 May 2015 17:41

What is culture? Anybody explain pls ?

22 May 2015 17:42

.

26 May 2015 12:46

?????

26 May 2015 12:47

26 May 2015 12:47

.............

26 May 2015 12:48

26 May 2015 12:54

culture it's a thing which are connected with
our life.
sometimes it's Increases our homage in our cultural
and sometimes it's lesses our homage

26 May 2015 13:12

Nice answer Yabir

26 May 2015 13:14

Quote by YAbirAhmed
culture it's a thing which are connected with
our life.
sometimes it's Increases our homage in our cultural
and sometimes it's lesses our homage :)

yes it is

26 May 2015 13:15

Quote by cooltariq1
Nice answer Yabir :hb

Thank you

26 May 2015 13:15

:-O:-/

26 May 2015 13:15

Quote by H Murad
Quote by YAbirAhmed
culture it's a thing which are connected with
our life.
sometimes it's Increases our homage in our cultural
and sometimes it's lesses our homage :)

yes it is :heart

thanks

26 May 2015 13:17
Post is hidden!
26 May 2015 13:20

piash are u mad

26 May 2015 13:21

Yabir

26 May 2015 13:22

. Yabir

26 May 2015 13:25

Any pr0blm niaz

26 May 2015 13:32

Quote by cooltariq1
What is culture? Anybody explain pls ?

This article is about culture as used in the social sciences
and humanities. For uses in the natural sciences, see cell
culture and tissue culture . For other uses, see Culture
(disambiguation) .
Human symbolic expression developed
as prehistoric humans reached
behavioral modernity
Religion and expressive art are
important aspects of human culture.
Celebrations, rituals, and patterns of
consumption are important aspects of
folk culture .
Social and political organization varies
between different cultures.
Technologies such as writing permit a
high degree of cultural complexity.
Culture ( /ˈk ʌ l tʃ ər/ ) is, in the words of E.B. Tylor , "that
complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art,
morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits
acquired by man as a member of society." (Tylor 1871:1)
As a defining aspect of what it means to be human ,
culture is a central concept in anthropology , encompassing
the range of phenomena that are transmitted through
social learning in human societies. The word is used in a
general sense as the evolved ability to categorize and
represent experiences with symbols and to act
imaginatively and creatively. This ability arose with the
evolution of behavioral modernity in humans around 50,000
years ago. This capacity is often thought to be unique to
humans, although some other species have demonstrated
similar, though much less complex abilities for social
learning. It is also used to denote the complex networks of
practices and accumulated knowledge and ideas that is
transmitted through social interaction and exist in specific
human groups, or cultures, using the plural form. Some
aspects of human behavior, such as language , social
practices such as kinship , gender and marriage, expressive
forms such as music, dance , ritual, religion , and
technologies such as cooking , shelter, clothing are said to
be cultural universals, found in all human societies. The
concept material culture covers the physical expressions
of culture, such as technology, architecture and art,
whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as
principles of social organization (including, practices of
political organization and social institutions ), mythology ,
philosophy, literature (both written and oral ), and science
make up the intangible cultural heritage of a society. [1]
In the humanities, one sense of culture, as an attribute of
the individual, has been the degree to which they have
cultivated a particular level of sophistication, in the arts,
sciences, education, or manners. The level of cultural
sophistication has also sometimes been seen to distinguish
civilizations from less complex societies. Such hierarchical
perspectives on culture are also found in Class based
distinctions between a high culture of the social elite and a
low culture , popular culture or folk culture of the lower
classes, distinguished by the stratified access to cultural
capital . In common parlance, culture is often used to refer
specifically to the symbolic markers used by ethnic groups
to distinguish themselves visibly from each other such as
body modification, clothing or jewelry. [ dubious ] Mass
culture refers to the mass-produced and mass mediated
forms of consumer culture that emerged in the 20th
century. Some schools of philosophy, such as Marxism and
critical theory , have argued that culture is often used
politically as a tool of the elites to manipulate the lower
classes and create a false consciousness , such
perspectives common in the discipline of cultural studies .
In the wider social sciences, the theoretical perspective of
cultural materialism holds that human symbolic culture
arises from the material conditions of human life, as
humans create the conditions for physical survival, and
that the basis of culture is found in evolved biological
dispositions.
When used as a count noun "a culture", is the set of
customs, traditions and values of a society or community,
such as an ethnic group or nation. In this sense the
concept of multiculturalism is a political ideology that
values the peaceful coexistence and mutual respect
between different cultures inhabiting the same territory.
Sometimes "culture" is also used to describe specific
practices within a subgroup of a society, a subculture (e.g.
" bro culture "), or a counter culture . Within cultural
anthropology , the ideology and analytical stance of cultural
relativism holds that cultures cannot easily be objectively
ranked or evaluated because any evaluation is necessarily
situated within the value system of a given culture.
Etymology
The modern term "culture" is based on a term used by the
Ancient Roman orator Cicero in his Tusculanae
Disputationes , where he wrote of a cultivation of the soul or
"cultura animi" , [2] using an agricultural metaphor for the
development of a philosophical soul, understood
teleologically as the highest possible ideal for human
development. Samuel Pufendorf took over this metaphor in
a modern context, meaning something similar, but no
longer assuming that philosophy was man's natural
perfection. His use, and that of many writers after him
" refers to all the ways in which human beings overcome their
original barbarism, and through artifice, become fully human".
[3]
Philosopher Edward S. Casey (1996) describes: "The very
word culture meant "place tilled" in Middle English, and the
same word goes back to Latin colere , "to inhabit, care for,
till, worship." To be cultural, to have a culture, is to inhabit
a place sufficiently intensely to cultivate it - to be
responsible for it, to respond to it, to attend to it
caringly." [4]
Culture described by Velkley: [3]
Change
A 19th-century engraving showing
Australian natives opposing the arrival
of Captain James Cook in 1770
Cultural invention has come to mean any innovation that is
new and found to be useful to a group of people and
expressed in their behavior but which does not exist as a
physical object. Humanity is in a global "accelerating
culture change period", driven by the expansion of
international commerce, the mass media, and above all,
the human population explosion, among other factors.
Cultures are internally affected by both forces encouraging
change and forces resisting change. These forces are
related to both social structures and natural events, and
are involved in the perpetuation of cultural ideas and
practices within current structures, which themselves are
subject to change. [5] (See structuration .)
Social conflict and the development of technologies can
produce changes within a society by altering social
dynamics and promoting new cultural models, and spurring
or enabling generative action. These social shifts may
accompany ideological shifts and other types of cultural
change. For example, the U.S. feminist movement involved
new practices that produced a shift in gender relations,
altering both gender and economic structures.
Environmental conditions may also enter as factors. For
example, after tropical forests returned at the end of the
last ice age, plants suitable for domestication were
available, leading to the invention of agriculture , which in
turn brought about many cultural innovations and shifts in
social dynamics. [6]
Full-length profile portrait of Turkman
woman, standing on a carpet at the
entrance to a yurt, dressed in
traditional clothing and jewelry
Cultures are externally affected via contact between
societies, which may also produce—or inhibit—social shifts
and changes in cultural practices. War or competition over
resources may impact technological development or social
dynamics. Additionally, cultural ideas may transfer from
one society to another, through diffusion or acculturation.
In diffusion , the form of something (though not necessarily
its meaning) moves from one culture to another. For
example, hamburgers, fast food in the United States,
seemed exotic when introduced into China. "Stimulus
diffusion" (the sharing of ideas) refers to an element of
one culture leading to an invention or propagation in
another. "Direct Borrowing" on the other hand tends to
refer to technological or tangible diffusion from one culture
to another. Diffusion of innovations theory presents a
research-based model of why and when individuals and
cultures adopt new ideas, practices, and products.
Acculturation has different meanings, but in this context it
refers to replacement of the traits of one culture with
those of another, such as what happened to certain Native
American tribes and to many indigenous peoples across
the globe during the process of colonization . Related
processes on an individual level include assimilation
(adoption of a different culture by an individual) and
transculturation .
Early modern discourses
Johann Herder called
attention to national cultures.
The German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) has
formulated an individualist definition of "enlightenment"
similar to the concept of bildung : "Enlightenment is man's
emergence from his self-incurred immaturity." [7] He
argued that this immaturity comes not from a lack of
understanding, but from a lack of courage to think
independently. Against this intellectual cowardice, Kant
urged: Sapere aude , "Dare to be wise!" In reaction to Kant,
German scholars such as Johann Gottfried Herder (1744–
1803) argued that human creativity, which necessarily
takes unpredictable and highly diverse forms, is as
important as human rationality. Moreover, Herder proposed
a collective form of bildung : "For Herder, Bildung was the
totality of experiences that provide a coherent identity, and
sense of common destiny, to a people." [8]
Adolf Bastian developed a
universal model of culture.
In 1795, the great linguist and philosopher Wilhelm von
Humboldt (1767–1835) called for an anthropology that
would synthesize Kant's and Herder's interests. During the
Romantic era , scholars in Germany , especially those
concerned with nationalist movements—such as the
nationalist struggle to create a "Germany" out of diverse
principalities, and the nationalist struggles by ethnic
minorities against the Austro-Hungarian Empire —developed
a more inclusive notion of culture as
" worldview " ( Weltanschauung ). According to this school of
thought, each ethnic group has a distinct worldview that is
incommensurable with the worldviews of other groups.
Although more inclusive than earlier views, this approach to
culture still allowed for distinctions between "civilized" and
"primitive" or "tribal" cultures.
In 1860, Adolf Bastian (1826–1905) argued for "the
psychic unity of mankind". He proposed that a scientific
comparison of all human societies would reveal that
distinct worldviews consisted of the same basic elements.
According to Bastian, all human societies share a set of
"elementary ideas" ( Elementargedanken ); different cultures,
or different "folk ideas" ( Völkergedanken), are local
modifications of the elementary ideas. [9] This view paved
the way for the modern understanding of culture. Franz
Boas (1858–1942) was trained in this tradition, and he
brought it with him when he left Germany for the United
States.
British poet and critic
Matthew Arnold viewed
"culture" as the cultivation of
the humanist ideal.
In the 19th century, humanists such as English poet and
essayist Matthew Arnold (1822–1888) used the word
"culture" to refer to an ideal of individual human
refinement, of "the best that has been thought and said in
the world." [10] This concept of culture is comparable to
the German concept of bildung : "...culture being a pursuit
of our total perfection by means of getting to know, on all
the matters which most concern us, the best which has
been thought and said in the world." [10]
In practice, culture referred to an élite ideal and was
associated with such activities as art, classical music, and
haute cuisine. [11] As these forms were associated with
urban life, "culture" was identified with "civilization" (from
lat. civitas , city). Another facet of the Romantic movement
was an interest in folklore , which led to identifying a
"culture" among non-elites. This distinction is often
characterized as that between high culture , namely that of
the ruling social group , and low culture . In other words, the
idea of "culture" that developed in Europe during the 18th
and early 19th centuries reflected inequalities within
European societies. [12]
British anthropologist Edward
Tylor was one of the first
English-speaking scholars to
use the term culture in an
inclusive and universal sense.
Matthew Arnold contrasted "culture" with anarchy; other
Europeans, following philosophers Thomas Hobbes and
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, contrasted "culture" with "the
state of nature". According to Hobbes and Rousseau, the
Native Americans who were being conquered by Europeans
from the 16th centuries on were living in a state of nature;
this opposition was expressed through the contrast
between "civilized" and "uncivilized." According to this way
of thinking, one could classify some countries and nations
as more civilized than others and some people as more
cultured than others. This contrast led to Herbert
Spencer 's theory of Social Darwinism and Lewis Henry
Morgan 's theory of cultural evolution . Just as some critics
have argued that the distinction between high and low
cultures is really an expression of the conflict between
European elites and non-elites, some critics have argued
that the distinction between civilized and uncivilized people
is really an expression of the conflict between European
colonial powers and their colonial subjects.
Other 19th-century critics, following Rousseau have
accepted this differentiation between higher and lower
culture, but have seen the refinement and sophistication of
high culture as corrupting and unnatural developments that
obscure and distort people's essential nature. These critics
considered folk music (as produced by "the folk", i.e., rural,
illiterate, peasants) to honestly express a natural way of
life, while classical music seemed superficial and
decadent. Equally, this view often portrayed indigenous
peoples as " noble savages " living authentic and
unblemished lives, uncomplicated and uncorrupted by the
highly stratified capitalist systems of the West .
In 1870 the anthropologist Edward Tylor (1832–1917)
applied these ideas of higher versus lower culture to
propose a theory of the evolution of religion . According to
this theory, religion evolves from more polytheistic to more
monotheistic forms. [13] In the process, he redefined
culture as a diverse set of activities characteristic of all
human societies. This view paved the way for the modern
understanding of culture.
Anthropology
Petroglyphs in modern-day Gobustan,
Azerbaijan , dating back to 10 000 BCE
and indicating a thriving culture
Main article: American anthropology
Although anthropologists worldwide refer to Tylor's
definition of culture, in the 20th century "culture" emerged
as the central and unifying concept of American
anthropology , where it most commonly refers to the
universal human capacity to classify and encode human
experiences symbolically , and to communicate symbolically
encoded experiences socially. [citation needed ] American
anthropology is organized into four fields, each of which
plays an important role in research on culture: biological
anthropology , linguistic anthropology , cultural anthropology ,
and archaeology .
Sociology
Main article: Sociology of culture
The sociology of culture concerns culture—usually
understood as the ensemble of symbolic codes used by a
society—as manifested in society. For Georg Simmel
(1858-1918), culture referred to "the cultivation of
individuals through the agency of external forms which
have been objectified in the course of history". [14] Culture
in the sociological field can be defined as the ways of
thinking, the ways of acting, and the material objects that
together shape a people's way of life. Culture can be any
of two types, non-material culture or material culture . [15]
Cultural sociology first emerged in Weimar Germany
(1918-1933), where sociologists such as Alfred Weber used
the term Kultursoziologie (cultural sociology). Cultural
sociology was then "reinvented" in the English-speaking
world as a product of the " cultural turn " of the 1960s,
which ushered in structuralist and postmodern approaches
to social science. This type of cultural sociology may
loosely be regarded as an approach incorporating cultural
analysis and critical theory . Cultural sociologists tend to
reject scientific methods, [ citation needed ] instead
hermeneutically focusing on words, artifacts and symbols.
"Culture" has since become an important concept across
many branches of sociology, including resolutely scientific
fields like social stratification and social network analysis .
As a result, there has been a recent influx of quantitative
sociologists to the field. Thus there is now a growing group
of sociologists of culture who are, confusingly, not cultural
sociologists. These scholars reject the abstracted
postmodern aspects of cultural sociology, and instead look
for a theoretical backing in the more scientific vein of
social psychology and cognitive science . "Cultural
sociology" is one of the largest sections of the American
Sociological Association. The British establishment of
cultural studies means the latter is often taught as a
loosely-distinct discipline in the UK.
The sociology of culture grew from the intersection
between sociology (as shaped by early theorists like Marx ,
Durkheim , and Weber) with the growing discipline of
anthropology , wherein researchers pioneered ethnographic
strategies for describing and analyzing a variety of cultures
around the world. Part of the legacy of the early
development of the field lingers in the methods (much of
cultural sociological research is qualitative), in the theories
(a variety of critical approaches to sociology are central to
current research communities), and in the substantive
focus of the field. For instance, relationships between
popular culture , political control, and social class were
early and lasting concerns in the field.
Cultural studies
In the United Kingdom, sociologists and other scholars
influenced by Marxism , such as Stuart Hall (1932-2014)
and Raymond Williams (1921-1988), developed cultural
studies . Following nineteenth-century Romantics, they
identified "culture" with consumption goods and leisure
activities (such as art, music, film, food, sports, and
clothing). Nevertheless, they saw patterns of consumption
and leisure as determined by relations of production, which
led them to focus on class relations and the organization
of production. [16][17]
In the United States, "Cultural Studies" focuses largely on
the study of popular culture , that is, on the social
meanings of mass-produced consumer and leisure goods.
Richard Hoggart coined the term in 1964 when he founded
the Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies
or CCCS. It has since become strongly associated with
Stuart Hall, who succeeded Hoggart as Director. Cultural
studies in this sense, then, can be viewed as a limited
concentration scoped on the intricacies of consumerism,
which belongs to a wider culture sometimes referred to as
"Western Civilization" or as "Globalism."
From the 1970s onward, Stuart Hall's pioneering work,
along with that of his colleagues Paul Willis , Dick Hebdige ,
Tony Jefferson, and Angela McRobbie , created an
international intellectual movement. As the field developed
it began to combine political economy , communication,
sociology , social theory, literary theory, media theory , film/
video studies, cultural anthropology , philosophy, museum
studies and art history to study cultural phenomena or
cultural texts. In this field researchers often concentrate
on how particular phenomena relate to matters of ideology,
nationality , ethnicity, social class , and/or
gender . [citation needed ] Cultural studies has a concern with
the meaning and practices of everyday life. These
practices comprise the ways people do particular things
(such as watching television, or eating out) in a given
culture. This field studies the meanings and uses people
attribute to various objects and practices. Specifically,
culture involves those meanings and practices held
independently of reason. Watching television in order to
view a public perspective on a historical event should not
be thought of as culture, unless referring to the medium of
television itself, which may have been selected culturally;
however, schoolchildren watching television after school
with their friends in order to "fit in" certainly qualifies, since
there is no grounded reason for one's participation in this
practice. Recently, as capitalism has spread throughout
the world (a process called globalization ), cultural studies
has begun [when? ] to analyse local and global forms of
resistance to Western hegemony . [citation needed ]
In the context of cultural studies, the idea of a text
includes not only written language , but also films ,
photographs, fashion or hairstyles : the texts of cultural
studies comprise all the meaningful artifacts of
culture. [citation needed ] Similarly, the discipline widens the
concept of "culture". "Culture" for a cultural-studies
researcher not only includes traditional high culture (the
culture of ruling social groups ) [18] and popular culture , but
also everyday meanings and practices. The last two, in
fact, have become the main focus of cultural studies. A
further and recent approach is comparative cultural
studies , based on the disciplines of comparative literature
and cultural studies. [ citation needed ]
Scholars in the United Kingdom and the United States
developed somewhat different versions of cultural studies
after the late 1970s. The British version of cultural studies
had originated in the 1950s and 1960s, mainly under the
influence first of Richard Hoggart, E. P. Thompson , and
Raymond Williams , and later that of Stuart Hall and others
at the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies at the
University of Birmingham . This included overtly political,
left-wing views, and criticisms of popular culture as
"capitalist" mass culture ; it absorbed some of the ideas of
the Frankfurt School critique of the " culture industry" (i.e.
mass culture). This emerges in the writings of early British
cultural-studies scholars and their influences: see the work
of (for example) Raymond Williams, Stuart Hall, Paul Willis,
and Paul Gilroy.
In the United States, Lindlof and Taylor write, "Cultural
studies [were] grounded in a pragmatic, liberal-pluralist
tradition". [19] The American version of cultural studies
initially concerned itself more with understanding the
subjective and appropriative side of audience reactions to,
and uses of, mass culture ; for example, American cultural-
studies advocates wrote about the liberatory aspects of
fandom . [ citation needed ] The distinction between American
and British strands, however, has faded. [ citation needed ]
Some researchers, especially in early British cultural
studies, apply a Marxist model to the field. This strain of
thinking has some influence from the Frankfurt School , but
especially from the structuralist Marxism of Louis
Althusser and others. The main focus of an orthodox
Marxist approach concentrates on the production of
meaning . This model assumes a mass production of culture
and identifies power as residing with those producing
cultural artifacts . In a Marxist view, those who control the
means of production (the economic base) essentially
control a culture. [citation needed ] Other approaches to
cultural studies, such as feminist cultural studies and later
American developments of the field, distance themselves
from this view. They criticize the Marxist assumption of a
single, dominant meaning, shared by all, for any cultural
product. The non-Marxist approaches suggest that
different ways of consuming cultural artifacts affect the
meaning of the product. This view comes through in the
book Doing Cultural Studies: The Story of the Sony Walkman
(by Paul du Gay et al. ), [20] which seeks to challenge the
notion that those who produce commodities control the
meanings that people attribute to them. Feminist cultural
analyst, theorist and art historian Griselda Pollock
contributed to cultural studies from viewpoints of art
history and psychoanalysis . The writer Julia Kristeva is
among influential voices at the turn of the century,
contributing to cultural studies from the field of art and
psychoanalytical French feminism. [citation needed ]
Petrakis and Kostis (2013) divide cultural background
variables into two main groups: [21]
1. The first group covers the variables that represent the
"efficiency orientation" of the societies: performance
orientation, future orientation, assertiveness, power
distance and uncertainty avoidance.
2. The second covers the variables that represent the
"social orientation" of societies, i.e., the attitudes and
lifestyles of their members. These variables include gender
egalitarianism, institutional collectivism, in-group
collectivism and human orientation.
Cultural dynamics
Raimon Panikkar pointed out 29 ways in which cultural
change can be brought about. Some of these are: growth,
development, evolution, involution, renovation,
reconception, reform, innovation, revivalism, revolution,
mutation, progress, diffusion, osmosis, borrowing,
eclecticism, syncretism, modernization, indigenization, and
transformation. [22]
See also
Culture portal
Anthropology
Cultural area
Outline of culture
Semiotics of culture
Culture – Wikipedia book
Notes
1. ^ Macionis, Gerber, John, Linda (2010). Sociology 7th
Canadian Ed. Toronto, Ontario: Pearson Canada Inc. p. 53.
2. ^ Cicero, Marcus Tullius (45 BC). Tusculanes (Tusculan
Disputations) . pp. II, 15. Check date values in: |date=
( help )
3. ^ a b Velkley, Richard (2002). "The Tension in the
Beautiful: On Culture and Civilization in Rousseau and
German Philosophy". Being after Rousseau: Philosophy and
Culture in Question . The University of Chicago Press.
pp. 11–30.
4. ^ https://read.amazon.com/?
asin=B00DG8M7EU [ full citation needed ]
5. ^ O'Neil, D. 2006. "Processes of Change" .
6. ^ Pringle, H. 1998. The Slow Birth of Agriculture .
Science 282: 1446.
7. ^ Immanuel Kant 1784 "Answering the Question: What
is Enlightenment?" (German: "Beantwortung der Frage:
Was ist Aufklärung?") Berlinische Monatsschrift , December
(Berlin Monthly)
8. ^ Michael Eldridge, "The German Bildung Tradition" UNC
Charlotte
9. ^ "Adolf Bastian", Today in Science History ; "Adolf
Bastian", Encyclopædia Britannica
10. ^ a b Arnold, Matthew. 1869. Culture and Anarchy.
11. ^ Williams (1983), p.90. Cited in Shuker, Roy (1994).
Understanding Popular Music , p.5. ISBN 0-415-10723-7 .
argues that contemporary definitions of culture fall into
three possibilities or mixture of the following three:
"a general process of intellectual, spiritual, and
aesthetic development"
"a particular way of life, whether of a people, period,
or a group"
"the works and practices of intellectual and especially
artistic activity".
12. ^ Bakhtin 1981, p.4
13. ^ McClenon, pp.528-529
14. ^ Levine, Donald (ed) 'Simmel: On individuality and
social forms' Chicago University Press, 1971. p. xix.
15. ^ Macionis, J., and Gerber, L. (2010). Sociology, 7th
edition
16. ^ Raymond Williams (1976) Keywords: A Vocabulary of
Culture and Society . Rev. Ed. (New York: Oxford UP, 1983),
pp. 87–93 and 236–8.
17. ^ John Berger, Peter Smith Pub. Inc., (1971) Ways of
Seeing
18. ^ Bakhtin, Mikhail 1981. The Dialogic Imagination.
Austin, TX: UT Press, p.4
19. ^ Lindlof & Taylor, 2002, p.60
20. ^ du Gay, Paul, ed. (1997). Doing Cultural Studies: The
Story of the Sony Walkman . Culture, Media and Identities
series 1. SAGE. ISBN 9780761954026 . Retrieved
2014-10-08.
21. ^ P.E. Petrakis, P.C. Kostis (2013) "Economic Growth
and Cultural Change", Journal of Socio-Economics , Issue C,
Vol. 47, pp. 147-157, doi: 10.1016/j.socec.2013.02.011
22. ^ "Indic Christian Theology of Religious Pluralism" (K.
Pathil (ed), Religious Pluralism, ISPCK, 1991, pp. 252-299),
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Ralph L. Holloway Jr. (1969). "Culture: A Human
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Dell Hymes (1969). Reinventing Anthropology .
James, Paul; Szeman, Imre (2010). Globalization and
Culture, Vol. 3: Global-Local Consumption . London: Sage
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Michael Tomasello (1999). "The Human Adaptation for
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Articles
"Adolf Bastian". Today in Science History . 27 Jan 2009
Today in Science History
The Meaning of "Culture" (2014-12-27), Joshua
Rothman, The New Yorker
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Cultura: International Journal of Philosophy of Culture
and Axiology
Religion and Culture: Differences (Table)
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... originally meant the cultivation of the
soul or mind, acquires most of its later
modern meanings in the writings of the
18th-century German thinkers, who were
on various levels developing Rousseau 's
criticism of ″ modern liberalism and
Enlightenment ″. Thus a contrast between
"culture" and "civilization " is usually
implied in these authors, even when not
expressed as such. Two primary
meanings of culture emerge from this
period: culture as the folk-spirit having a
unique identity and culture as cultivation
of waywardness or free individuality.
The first meaning is predominant in our
current use of the term "culture ,"
although the second still plays a large
role in what we think culture should
achieve, namely the full "expression" of
the unique or "authentic" self.

26 May 2015 13:47

The quality in the person or society that arises from the concern for what is regarded as exelent in art, letters en manner