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7 May 2015 06:47

What is the mean of your religion name ?

7 May 2015 10:38

Quote by Ghulam-Rasool
What is the mean of your religion name ? :U

This article is about a general set of beliefs about life,
purpose, etc.. For other uses, see Religion (disambiguation) .
"Religious" redirects here. For a member of a Catholic
religious institute, see Religious (Catholicism) .
Religious activities around the world
A religion is an organized collection of beliefs , cultural
systems, and world views that relate humanity to an order
of existence. Many religions have narratives ,
symbols , and sacred histories that aim to explain the
meaning of life, the origin of life, or the Universe. From
their beliefs about the cosmos and human nature , people
may derive morality , ethics , religious laws or a preferred
lifestyle .
Many religions may have organized behaviors , clergy , a
definition of what constitutes adherence or membership,
holy places, and scriptures . The practice of a religion may
include rituals, sermons , commemoration or veneration (of
a deity , gods, or goddesses), sacrifices, festivals , feasts,
trances , initiations, funerary services, matrimonial services,
meditation, prayer , music , art, dance , public service, or
other aspects of human culture. Religions may also
contain mythology . [1]
The word religion is sometimes used interchangeably with
faith or set of duties ; [2] however, in the words of Émile
Durkheim , religion differs from private belief in that it is
"something eminently social". [3] A global 2012 poll reports
59% of the world's population as "religious" and 36% as not
religious , including 13% who are atheists, with a 9%
decrease in religious belief from 2005. [4] On average,
women are "more religious" than men. [5] Some people
follow multiple religions or multiple religious principles at
the same time, regardless of whether or not the religious
principles they follow traditionally allow for syncretism. [6]
Main article: Religio (word)
Religion (from O.Fr. religion "religious community," from L.
religionem (nom. religio) "respect for what is sacred,
reverence for the gods," [9] "obligation, the bond between
man and the gods" [10] ) is derived from the Latin religiō ,
the ultimate origins of which are obscure. One possibility
is an interpretation traced to Cicero , connecting lego
"read", i.e. re (again) + lego in the sense of "choose", "go
over again" or "consider carefully". Modern scholars such
as Tom Harpur and Joseph Campbell favor the derivation
from ligare "bind, connect", probably from a prefixed re-
ligare, i.e. re (again) + ligare or "to reconnect," which was
made prominent by St. Augustine , following the
interpretation of Lactantius . [11][12] The medieval usage
alternates with order in designating bonded communities
like those of monastic orders : "we hear of the 'religion' of
the Golden Fleece , of a knight 'of the religion of Avys'". [13]
According to the philologist Max Müller, the root of the
English word "religion", the Latin religio , was originally used
to mean only "reverence for God or the gods, careful
pondering of divine things, piety " (which Cicero further
derived to mean "diligence"). [14][15] Max Müller
characterized many other cultures around the world,
including Egypt, Persia, and India, as having a similar
power structure at this point in history. What is called
ancient religion today, they would have only called "law".
Many languages have words that can be translated as
"religion", but they may use them in a very different way,
and some have no word for religion at all. For example, the
Sanskrit word dharma , sometimes translated as "religion",
also means law. Throughout classical South Asia , the
study of law consisted of concepts such as penance
through piety and ceremonial as well as practical
traditions . Medieval Japan at first had a similar union
between "imperial law" and universal or "Buddha law", but
these later became independent sources of power. [17][18]
There is no precise equivalent of "religion" in Hebrew, and
Judaism does not distinguish clearly between religious,
national, racial, or ethnic identities. [19] One of its central
concepts is " halakha ", sometimes translated as "law"",
which guides religious practice and belief and many
aspects of daily life.
The use of other terms, such as obedience to God or Islam
are likewise grounded in particular histories and
vocabularies. [20]
There are numerous definitions of religion and only a few
are stated here. The typical dictionary definition of religion
refers to a "belief in, or the worship of, a god or gods" [21]
or the "service and worship of God or the supernatural".
[22] However, writers and scholars have expanded upon
the "belief in god" definitions as insufficient to capture the
diversity of religious thought and experience.
Peter Mandaville and Paul James define religion as "a
relatively-bounded system of beliefs, symbols and
practices that addresses the nature of existence, and in
which communion with others and Otherness is lived as if
it both takes in and spiritually transcends socially-grounded
ontologies of time, space, embodiment and knowing". [23]
This definition is intended, they write, to get away from the
modernist dualisms or dichotomous understandings of
immanence/transcendence, spirituality/materialism, and

7 May 2015 10:40

defined religion as "the belief in
spiritual beings". [24] He argued, back in 1871, that
narrowing the definition to mean the belief in a supreme
deity or judgment after death or idolatry and so on, would
exclude many peoples from the category of religious, and
thus "has the fault of identifying religion rather with
particular developments than with the deeper motive which
underlies them". He also argued that the belief in spiritual
beings exists in all known societies.
The anthropologist Clifford Geertz defined religion as a
"system of symbols which acts to establish powerful,
pervasive, and long-lasting moods and motivations in men
by formulating conceptions of a general order of existence
and clothing these conceptions with such an aura of
factuality that the moods and motivations seem uniquely
realistic." [25] Alluding perhaps to Tylor's "deeper motive",
Geertz remarked that "we have very little idea of how, in
empirical terms, this particular miracle is accomplished.
We just know that it is done, annually, weekly, daily, for
some people almost hourly; and we have an enormous
ethnographic literature to demonstrate it". [26] The
theologian Antoine Vergote also emphasized the "cultural
reality" of religion, which he defined as "the entirety of the
linguistic expressions, emotions and, actions and signs that
refer to a supernatural being or supernatural beings"; he
took the term "supernatural" simply to mean whatever
transcends the powers of nature or human agency. [27]
The sociologist Durkheim , in his seminal book The
Elementary Forms of the Religious Life , defined religion as
a "unified system of beliefs and practices relative to
sacred things". [28] By sacred things he meant things "set
apart and forbidden—beliefs and practices which unite into
one single moral community called a Church, all those who
adhere to them". Sacred things are not, however, limited to
gods or spirits. On the contrary, a sacred thing can
be "a rock, a tree, a spring, a pebble, a piece of wood, a
house, in a word, anything can be sacred". [29] Religious
beliefs, myths, dogmas and legends are the
representations that express the nature of these sacred
things, and the virtues and powers which are attributed to
them. [30]
In his book The Varieties of Religious Experience, the
psychologist William James defined religion as "the
feelings, acts, and experiences of individual men in their
solitude, so far as they apprehend themselves to stand in
relation to whatever they may consider the divine". [31] By
the term "divine" James meant "any object that is god like,
whether it be a concrete deity or not" [32] to which the
individual feels impelled to respond with solemnity and
gravity. [33]
Echoes of James' and Durkheim's definitions are to be
found in the writings of, for example, Frederick Ferré who
defined religion as "one's way of valuing most
comprehensively and intensively". [34] Similarly, for the
theologian Paul Tillich , faith is "the state of being
ultimately concerned", [35] which "is itself religion. Religion
is the substance, the ground, and the depth of man's
spiritual life." [36] Friedrich Schleiermacher in the late 18th
century defined religion as das schlechthinnige
Abhängigkeitsgefühl , commonly translated as "a feeling of
absolute dependence". [37] His contemporary Hegel
disagreed thoroughly, defining religion as "the Divine Spirit
becoming conscious of Himself through the finite
spirit." [38]
When religion is seen in terms of "sacred", "divine",
intensive "valuing", or "ultimate concern", then it is
possible to understand why scientific findings and
philosophical criticisms (e.g. Richard Dawkins) do not
necessarily disturb its adherents. [39]
An increasing number of scholars have expressed
reservations about ever defining the "essence" of religion.
[40] They observe that the way we use the concept today
is a particularly modern construct that would not have
been understood through much of history and in many
cultures outside the West (or even in the West until after
the Peace of Westphalia). [41]
Main article: Theories of religion
The Yazılıkaya sanctuary in Turkey , with
the twelve gods of the underworld
The origin of religion is uncertain. There are a number of
theories regarding the subsequent origins of organized
religious practices.
According to anthropologists John Monaghan and Peter
Just, "Many of the great world religions appear to have
begun as revitalization movements of some sort, as the
vision of a charismatic prophet fires the imaginations of
people seeking a more comprehensive answer to their
problems than they feel is provided by everyday beliefs.
Charismatic individuals have emerged at many times and
places in the world. It seems that the key to long-term
success – and many movements come and go with little
long-term effect – has relatively little to do with the
prophets, who appear with surprising regularity, but more
to do with the development of a group of supporters who
are able to institutionalize the movement." [42]
The development of religion has taken different forms in
different cultures. Some religions place an emphasis on
belief, while others emphasize practice. Some religions
focus on the subjective experience of the religious
individual, while others consider the activities of the
religious community to be most important. Some religions
claim to be universal, believing their laws and cosmology to
be binding for everyone, while others are intended to be
practiced only by a closely defined or localized group. In
many places religion has been associated with public
institutions such as education, hospitals, the family ,
government, and political hierarchies. [43]
Anthropologists John Monoghan and Peter Just state that,
"it seems apparent that one thing religion or belief helps us
do is deal with problems of human life that are significant,
persistent, and intolerable. One important way in which
religious beliefs accomplish this is by providing a set of
ideas about how and why the world is put together that
allows people to accommodate anxieties and deal with
misfortune." [43]
One modern academic theory of religion, social
constructionism , says that religion is a modern concept
that suggests all spiritual practice and worship follows a
model similar to the Abrahamic religions as an orientation
system that helps to interpret reality and define human
beings. [44] Among the main proponents of this theory of
religion are Daniel Dubuisson, Timothy Fitzgerald, Talal
Asad, and Jason Ānanda Josephson. The social
constructionists argue that religion is a modern concept
that developed from Christianity and was then applied
inappropriately to non-Western cultures.
Daniel Dubuisson, a French anthropologist, says that the
idea of religion has changed a lot over time and that one
cannot fully understand its development by relying on
consistent use of the term, which "tends to minimize or
cancel out the role of history". [45] "What the West and the
history of religions in its wake have objectified under the
name 'religion'", he says, " is ... something quite unique,
which could be appropriate only to itself and its own
history." [45] He notes that St. Augustine 's definition of
religio differed from the way we used the modern word
"religion". [45]
Dubuisson prefers the term "cosmographic formation" to
religion. Dubuisson says that, with the emergence of
religion as a category separate from culture and society,
there arose religious studies . The initial purpose of
religious studies was to demonstrate the superiority of the
"living" or "universal" European world view to the "dead" or
"ethnic" religions scattered throughout the rest of the
world, expanding the teleological project of Schleiermacher
and Tiele to a worldwide ideal religiousness. [46] Due to
shifting theological currents, this was eventually supplanted
by a liberal-ecumenical interest in searching for Western-
style universal truths in every cultural tradition. [47]
According to Fitzgerald, religion is not a universal feature
of all cultures, but rather a particular idea that first
developed in Europe under the influence of Christianity. [48]
Fitzgerald argues that from about the 4th century CE
Western Europe and the rest of the world diverged. As
Christianity became commonplace, the charismatic
authority identified by Augustine, a quality we might today
call "religiousness", exerted a commanding influence at the
local level. As the Church lost its dominance during the
Protestant Reformation and Christianity became closely
tied to political structures, religion was recast as the basis
of national sovereignty, and religious identity gradually
became a less universal sense of spirituality and more
divisive, locally defined, and tied to nationality. [49] It was
at this point that "religion" was dissociated with universal
beliefs and moved closer to dogma in both meaning and
practice. However there was not yet the idea of dogma as
a personal choice, only of established churches . With the
Enlightenment religion lost its attachment to nationality,
says Fitzgerald, but rather than becoming a universal social
attitude, it now became a personal feeling or emotion. [50]
Asad argues that before the word "religion" came into
common usage, Christianity was a disciplina, a "rule" just
like that of the Roman Empire. This idea can be found in
the writings of St. Augustine (354–430). Christianity was
then a power structure opposing and superseding human
institutions, a literal Kingdom of Heaven. It was the
discipline taught by one's family, school, church, and city
authorities, rather than something calling one to self-
discipline through symbols. [51]
These ideas are developed by S. N. Balagangadhara . In the
Age of Enlightenment , Balagangadhara says that the idea
of Christianity as the purest expression of spirituality was
supplanted by the concept of "religion" as a worldwide
practice. [52] This caused such ideas as religious freedom,
a reexamination of classical philosophy as an alternative to
Christian thought, and more radically Deism among
intellectuals such as Voltaire . Much like Christianity, the
idea of "religious freedom" was exported around the world
as a civilizing technique, even to regions such as India that
had never treated spirituality as a matter of political
identity. [53]
More recently, in The Invention of Religion in Japan ,
Josephson has argued that while the concept of "religion"
was Christian in its early formulation, non-Europeans (such
as the Japanese) did not just acquiesce and passively
accept the term's meaning. Instead they worked to
interpret "religion" (and its boundaries) strategically to
meet their own agendas and staged these new meanings
for a global audience. [54] In nineteenth century Japan ,
Buddhism was radically transformed from a pre-modern
philosophy of natural law into a "religion," as Japanese
leaders worked to address domestic and international
political concerns. In summary, Josephson argues that the
European encounter with other cultures has led to a partial
de-Christianization of the category religion. Hence
"religion" has come to refer to a confused collection of
traditions with no possible coherent definition. [55]

7 May 2015 10:41
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7 May 2015 10:44
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7 May 2015 10:45

! ! !

7 May 2015 10:46
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7 May 2015 10:46

7 May 2015 10:49

Nice Explanati0n Zubair

7 May 2015 10:50

7 May 2015 10:51

Quote by cooltariq1
Nice Explanati0n Zubair :hm


7 May 2015 11:03

Stop googlinggggg or taking the definitions from different websites which are unprovable & unrelated to the actuality of this physical world; just utilize your own mind & share your real opinions here

7 May 2015 11:17

Quote by Wafa-waseem
Stop googlinggggg or taking the definitions from different websites which are unprovable & unrelated to the actuality of this physical world ; just utilize your own mind & share your real opinions here

paji i think they d0nt even knw why ur getting mad at them beacuse they never use their mind there's is n0t any way t0 st0p them fr0m using g0ogle and 0ther websites.. ,

7 May 2015 11:30


7 May 2015 11:31


7 May 2015 12:00

Quote by NaeEm..
Quote by Wafa-waseem
Stop googlinggggg or taking the definitions from different websites which are unprovable & unrelated to the actuality of this physical world ; just utilize your own mind & share your real opinions here

paji i think they d0nt even knw why ur getting mad at them beacuse they never use their mind there's is n0t any way t0 st0p them fr0m using g0ogle and 0ther websites.. ,

hahahahaha naeem paji did you read his all posts here which are hidden now? none of them was comprehensible or related to the reality of religions even if you'll ask him for further clarifications, he knows nothing like me indeed;

why don't they use their supernatural power of mind? don't they have utilization of mentality? hehehehe they're blindly following the elucidations of other people instead of using their own mind;

7 May 2015 12:11


7 May 2015 12:23

Islaam Is The Vry Gud Meaning...

11 May 2015 04:20

Quote by imranali786
Islaam Is The Vry Gud Meaning...

12 May 2015 05:50
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